Professor in Bioprocess Technology
BSc (UM), MSc (Wales), PhD (1992, University of London)
My main research interest in the bioconversion of starch, particularly sago starch into energy such as ethanol and further bioconversion into biodiesel, and production of bioplastic through formation of poly-lactate from lactic acid. Both processes utilise microbes found in abundance in the environment and being biological, this process is by far more efficient and environmental friendly then chemical methods. Sago starch is converted into glucose by a 2-step hydrolysis process using commercial enzymes of Termamyl and Dextrozyme with a 98% recovery. The current lactate and ethanol yield is between 60% to over 90% and 42% to 46%, accomplished using the cell recycling and pH dependent method.
Research cover the general areas of sago starch fermentation in the production of ethanol and L-lactic acid, modification of the fermentation procedures to increase product recovery (currently at 98% with recycling on HFM and flowrate at 0.25 -1 ), improvements on the purification process (currently at 99% colour and protein removal with 95% lactic yield on PAC) and storage properties of L-lactic acid to minimise polymerisation. Research on treatment of sago effluent has been enhanced from the use of microbial amendment (BakWira), provided by a local company for us to test on sago effluent. Currently, the online treatment system removed 98% COD after 3 days.
Main research interest:
Enzymatic hydrolysis of Starch and cellulose into sugars, either to produce sugar for consumption or just fermentable sugars for fermentation of ethanol for biofuel or for production of L-lactic acid.
Solid waste management and recycling, composting of solid organic wastes either by turned windrow or by forced aeration with tempearture feed-back (Rutgers System).
Selected publications - Refereed Journals
K.B. Bujang and J.M. Lopez-Real (1993). Composting for the Treatment of Cattle Wastes. Compost Science and Utilization, (3): 38-40.
K.B. Bujang and J.M. Lopez-Real (1993). On-Farm Composting in the U.K. Biocycle: J. Waste Management. 34(8): 72-73.
K.B. Bujang (1994). Composting Industrial Biosolids. Biocycle: J. Waste Management. 35(10): 27.
Jolhiri, P. and K.B. Bujang. (1998). Lactate Fermentation of Sago Starch. Annual Report of ICBiotech. Osaka Univ., Japan. 21: 454-466.
Adeni, D.S.A. and K.B. Bujang. (1998). Ethanol Fermentation of Sago Starch. Annual Report of ICBiotech. Osaka Univ., Japan. 21: 467-475
K.B. Bujang; Adeni, D. S. A. and Jolhiri, P. (2000). Effects of Starch Concentrations and pH on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sago Starch. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan (14): 32-35.
K.B. Bujang; Adeni, D.S.A. and lshizaki, A. (2000). Effects of pH on Production of Ethanol from Hydrolysed Sago Starch Utilising Zymomonas mobilis. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan (14): 20-26.
K.B. Bujang; P. Jolhiri and A. Ishizaki. (2000). Effects of pH on Production of Lactate From Hydrolysed Sago Starch Utilising Lactococcus lactis IO-1. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan (14): 27-31.
K.B. Bujang (2001). Economics and Waste Management of Sago Processing. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan. (15): 186-190.
K.B. Bujang (2002). Microbial Conversion of Tropical Biomass for Chemical Industry and Novel Biofuel Production. International Joint Research Grant Program. NEDO. Dec. 2-3rd, 2002. Ikebukuro. Japan. pp: 110-119.
K.B. Bujang (2004). Current Developments in the Production and Purification of L-Lactic Acid from Sago Starch. Sustainable Development of Biotechnology in the Tropics. ICBiotec. Osaka Univ. Japan. (17): 38-42.
K.B. Bujang, S. Sujang and D.S.A. Adeni (2004). Effects of Calcium Carbonate in Fermentation of L-Lactic Acid from Hydrolysed Sago Starch. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan (26): 637-643.
Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; K.B. Bujang and Ishizaki, A. (2009). Production of Nisin-Z Using Lactococcus lactis IO-1 from Hydrolyzed Sago Starch. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 36, Issue 3 (March 2009), page: 409. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg.
D.S.A. Adeni, S. Abd-Aziz, K.B. Bujang and M.A. Hassan (2010). Bioconversion of Sago Residue into Value Added Products. African J. of Biotechnol. Vol. 9 (14): 2016-2021.
W.A. Rashid; H. Musa; W.S. King and K.B. Bujang (2010). The Potential of Extended Aeration System for Sago Effluent Treatment. American Journal of Applied Sciences 7(5): 616-619.
Selected publications - Proceedings
K.B. Bujang and J.M. Lopez-Real (1993). Treatments and Safe Disposal of Cattle Wastes by Composting. Sustainable Development Challenges for the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. ASAIHL Seminar. Griffith Univ., Brisbane, Australia. 6 - 8th July, 1993. pg: 20.
K.B. Bujang, Q. Syed; K. Syamsu; S. Chauvatcharin and N.H. Hiep (1996). Technical Enzyme Production in Pilot Plant Scale: Case Study for the Production of Penicillin G-Acylase from E. coli. 10th International Conference in Biotechnology: Biotechnology and Its Global Impact. 7-11 Oct., 1996. Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung mbH. Braunschweig, Germany. pp: 1-34.
K.B. Bujang, K. Apun and M.A. Salleh (1996). A study in the Production and Bioconversion of Sago Waste. Proc. 6th International Sago Symposium. Sago: The Future Source of Food and Feed. Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru, Sumatra. Rep. of Indonesia. 9-12th December, 1996. pp: 193-200.
K.B. Bujang (1997). Country Report: Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia. ICRO-UNESCO-MIRCEN Regional Training Course, Prince of Songkhla University, Hat Yai, Thailand. 4-16th August, 1997. pg:4.
K.B. Bujang and F.B. Ahmad. (1999). Production, Properties and Utilisation of Sago Starch in Malaysia. In: Sustainable Small-Scale Sago Starch Extraction and Utilisation: Guidelines for the Sago Industry. Kasertsart Agric. and Agro-Indust. Prod. Dev. Institute (KAPI) and FAO. August 9-11th, 1999. Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. pp:82-95.
K.B. Bujang and D.S.A. Adeni (2000). Effects of Dilution Rate and pH Control in Ethanol Fermentation of Hydrolysed Sago Starch. SAGO 2000. The International Sago Seminar. March 22-23rd, 2000. Bogor. Indonesia. pp: 117-123.
K.B. Bujang; D.S.A. Adeni and P. Jolhery. (2001). Potentials of Sago Starch in the Energy and Lactate Industries in Malaysia. In: Diversity and Optimum Utilization of Biological Resources in the Torrid and Subtropical Zones. Sago Inter. Symp. June 2, 2001. Fukuoka. Japan. pp: 9-12.
K.B. Bujang (2002). Current Status of Biotechnology and Lactic Acid Research in Malaysia. Asian Federation of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Faculty of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Tokyo. Japan. Nov 28th, 2002.
K.B. Bujang and S. Jobli (2002). Effects of Glucose Feed Concentrations on Continuous Lactate Production from Sago Starch. Inter Symp. ‘Tropical Natural Bio-Resources and Green Chemistry Strategy’. ICBiotech. Osaka Univ. Japan. Oct. 27-30th, 2002. pp 358 – 363.
K.B. Bujang (2004). Development of Sago Research in Malaysia: With Special Reference to Unimas. Invited Lecture at Department of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki Campus, Fukuoka (September 8th, 2004) and Suntori Lecture Hall, Osaka University, Suita Campus, Osaka, Japan (September 9th, 2004).
K.B. Bujang (2006). Production of L-Lactic Acid from Sago Starch (Production d' Acide Lactique-L à partir de la fécule de Sagou). 34th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva. Geneva. Switzerland. April 5th - 9th, 2006. (Gold Medal).
K.B. Bujang and A. Ishizaki (2008). Production of Ethanol from Sago Utilising the Ishizaki Process. BioMalaysia 2008 Symp. Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Oct 6th-9th, 2008 (Silver medal)
K.B. Bujang (2009). Are We Biofueled for the Future?. Corporate Agriculture Directory 2009/10. Ministry of Agric. & Agro-Based Industry, Malaysia. TM Info Media Sdn Bhd. Pp: 30-32.
Bujang, K.B. (2010). Production and Processing of Sago. Keynote Address at The International Seminar on Sago and Spices for Food Security. Ambon. Rep. Indonesia. 28-29th July, 2010.
Bujang, K.B. (2010). Development of Sago as A Food and Fuel Alternative. Invited Speaker. My1Bio Symposium. Berjaya Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. MOSTI. 30-31st October, 2010.
Publication of Academic Books
Principle of Fermentation Technology - An Undispensable Guide to the Fermentation Process (2005). Co-author with Assoc Prof Dr Raja Shuib Hassan (Univ. Malaya). University Publication Centre, UiTM, Shah Alam (edited version and ready for re-submission).
Application of Fermentation Technology (2005). Co-author with Assoc Prof Dr Raja Shuib Hassan (Univ. Malaya). University Publication Centre, UiTM, Shah Alam (preparation of the manuscript for submission and editing).
‘Sago Award for Young Researcher’ from JSPS, 2001 - Awarded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) during the 7th International Sago Symposium held at Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea on June 27th, 2001. The monetary award is supported by the Susumu-WAKU Memorial Fund under the Tsukuba Sago Fund.
Pingat Perkhidmatan Bakti (Perak), Sarawak State Government, 2005 - Awarded in conjunction with the 84th birthday of TYT Negeri Sarawak on September 10th, 2005.
Pingat Perkhidmatan Setia, Sarawak State Government, 2006 - Awarded by State Government of Sarawak, on 6th June 2006.
Gold Medal for Exhibition of Inventions, Geneva 2006 - 34th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva, Switzerland. April 5th - 9th, 2006.
Silver Medal, BioMalaysia Symposium 2008 - Production of Ethanol from Sago Utilising the Ishizaki Process. K.L. Convention Centre. Oct 6th-9th, 2008
Anugerah Ma’al Hijrah Pencapaian Gemilang 2008 - Ma’al Hijrah 2008 Award for Excellent Achievement in Research and Development Category, 29th December 2008.
Anugerah Perkhidmatan Setia 2009 - From UNIMAS, on 7th August, 2010.